1.1 Presentation and market definition
Fast food is defined by INSEE as "the supply at the counter of food and beverages to be consumed on the premises or to be taken away, presented in disposable packaging".
This sector thus includes the restaurants fast food restaurants offering mainly take-out meals, the sale of meals in the food trucks, the fast food stalls, and finally tea shops. However, it does not include retail sales through vending machines.
Speed of service, simplicity of dishes, low prices, and an ability to manage high demand are prevailing characteristic of fast food restaurants. In light of this, fast food can be included in three major categories: traditional fast food restaurants, fast casual (focus is on quality and a diverse offer, examples of stores include Cojean), and fast good which offers a specialized, customizable offer in a pleasant setting, such as Big Fernand. The main customers are individuals and professionals alike. [malou]
The world market is growing rapidly, which is a trend that is similar across the globe. Emerging Economies are seeing the largest expansion of fast food facilities, whilst the Developed World's growth comes from a larger product offering such as healthy alternatives. France is traditionally not associated with fast food, instead the country is more known for its' gastronomy. However, fast food popularity is increasing rapidly; France represents roughly 10% of the global market for fast food and outlooks are positive. The nation is experiencing growth due to a larger range of environmental and health-oriented products being placed on the market, consequently speaking to more consumers.
1.2 The global market
The global fast food market is expected to grow rapidly to reach close to $*** in ****, which represents a CAGR of *.**% from ****. The growth is most likely to come from emerging economies where western brands are increasingly establishing themselves. In the Western world, fast food is also likely to grow, albeit ...
1.3 A strong national market
According to Gira Consulting the French fast food market reached €** billion in revenue in **** . According to the La Vie Des Entreprises (***), the market had a turnover of €**.* billion in ****, €** billion in **** and €** billion in ****. The market therefore recorded average growth of **.*% over the period ****-**** and a growth of **.*% in ****. In ...
1.4 Cyclicality patterns in company revenues
The line graph above is based on INSEE and the NAF-code **.**C (***); thus, in Jauary **** we had a value of *** which implies that companies registered under this NAF code displayed revenue which was **% higher than for an average month in ****. In other, words, January **** saw higher turnover than the average ...
2.1 The French; atypical consumers but lovers of fast food
The French fast food market is considered as a controversial market, due to aforementioned importance given to gastronomy and culinary traditions in the country. In particular, it can be observed that fast-food chains have had to adapt their offer to attract French consumers; for example, McDonald's has transformed their menus to ...
2.3 France's consumption is increasing
There has been a steady increase in the consumption of French households for catering services. The increase of consumption in this product segment is cannibalizing on sales of other segments such as bars and cafés as well as canteens and communal restaurants. The share of traditional and fast food ...
2.3 Regional demand analysis - Paris dominates fast food demand
In **** Paris had *** fast food restaurants, more than five times as much as Lyon in second place (***). From this, it is obvious that the capital city hosts the largest consumer demand of fast food. Nevertheless, when measured by **** inhabitants, it is Bordeaux, followed by Metz and Tours who display the ...
2.4 Demographics - the young dominate
According to the graph above, it is clear that the younger the consumer, the most likely he or she is to consume fast food. The age group **-** are most interested in fast food (***). However, as we will see later on, fast food restaurants are increasingly adapting to reach consumer ...
3.1 Breaking down the production chain
The fast food sector is divided into independent actors that are not linked to a chain, and large chains, often international. Activity in this sector remains dominated by large groups and networks such as McDonald's , Subway, Yum! Brands (***).
Production in the fast food sector is a major point in the organization ...
3.2 A growing number of market players
According to ACOSS, the number of companies in the French fast food sector has increased from **,*** in **** to **,*** in ****, representing a **% increase In the market (***). Although the number of new companies is closely correlated to the underlying economy, the last years the number of establisments have increased continously. Most likely, ...
3.3 Market Distribution
Four types of actors share the fast food market in France:
The experts of fast food restaurants; The bakeries ; The online fast food platforms The food supermarkets .
According to Euromonitor the fast food market is characterized by a high level of competition between the actors. While competition comes in particular from ...
3.4 The franchise model
In terms of distribution, the fast food sector relies heavily on the franchising principle (***).
In **** there were *** franchise chains in the restaurant sector in France.
The large brands consequently manage this network of franchisees, and ensure the homogeneity of products across the various points of sale. In order to cope with ...
3.5 Increasing competition from supermarket snacking offers
Snacking refers to eating ready-made and standardised dishes, outside meals and on the move. It differs from fast food in the way products are consumed. In fast food, the customer buys in a restaurant, a shop that only sells food. The snacking refers to the purchase of sandwiches, hot dogs and ...
4.1 A wide range of products
The products distributed in fast food restaurants are ready-to-eat and are usually presented in disposable packaging.
In terms of the products offered, we distinguish between three types of cuisines:
French (***) American (***) Italian (***)
Next come the products of the Asian cuisine (***) and of the Turkish/Greek and Lebanese specialities.
There are different ...
4.2 Rising fast food prices
In the fast food industry, prices are generally low compared to for example traditional catering, which is due to perfect competition. Nevertheless, low prices occur mainly in the standard offer; for "quality" products (***), prices are significantly higher compared to the former. For example, the average order from Cojean, a company positioning ...
4.3 A growing healthy fast food offer
Another point of leverage for the sector is the development of new offers that attracts new customers (***) with chains such as Cojean, Bioburger or Exki.
In order to better understand the plethora of "alternative" and "healthy" offers that are currently offered by the sector, it is necessary to define these ...
4.4 The development of food trucks
Finally, the boom in food-trucks can also be a major lever for the sector. This type of catering, which brings the product back to the customer and not the other way round, is a medium that is very well suited to current expectations and habits. Indeed, between **** and **** the number of ...
5.1. Regulations in force
The nature of the activity of fast food establishments can be both artisanal and commercial, as described on the bpifrance website.
The regulations in force for the hygiene and safety standards of commercial fast food establishments are similar to those of traditional restaurants. The rules are detailed on the website of ...
5.2. The problem of waste sorting for fast food restaurants
In March ****, fast food chains in France had to propose a compliance plan for waste management as reported by Le Point . These catering chains produce a significant amount of waste due to the packaging of their food. According to le Figaro, in **** fast food restaurants accounted for ***,*** tonnes of packaging waste ...
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