1.1 Presentation and definition of the market
Coffee is an energy drink that is obtained from roasted coffee beans. It is believed that coffee was discovered in prehistoric times by inhabitants of the Kaffa region in Ethiopia. It was then transported to Yemen in the 6th century.
Coffee consumption began in earnest in the 15th century in Yemen, then spread throughout the Arabian-Ottoman kingdom, and finally reached Europe. It is the second most traded commodity in the world after oil, and the most consumed beverage after water. Global consumption was estimated at 9 million tons in 2018, the equivalent of 2 billion cups consumed every day. Brazil, the United States, Japan, Western and Northern European countries are the largest consumers of coffee, while most of the world's production comes from Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia and Indonesia. In general, production takes place on small farms of less than 5 hectares
France is a mature market that continues to grow in value thanks to ever greater product differentiation through different tastes and packaging. Market concentration is high and companies leading the way include Nestlé, JDE and Lavazza
Organic coffee continues to have a low penetration and growth rate in France, but could be one of the segments that drives the market in the medium term. In 2020, this dynamism seems to be taking shape as the propensity of organic coffee seems to be increasing. The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the paradigm of French consumption habits, insofar as since the health crisis, the French are seeking to consume in a healthier way. This has resulted in an increase in the turnover of organic coffee and also in an increase in the supply of organic coffee
1.2 A growing global market (dominated by Europe)
According to Universalis As a result, world coffee production increased from * million tonnes in the mid-****s to *.** million tonnes in the early ****s. Today, global coffee consumption has reached almost ** million tons, and the International Coffee Organization (***) estimates global coffee production at *** million bags in ****, up *.*% from ****
Like other agricultural ...
1.3 French market driven by price increases
In France in ****, the average French person consumes the equivalent of *.* kg of coffee beans per year, placing the nation **th in the world. Finland is the biggest consumer with ** kg per year. In France, in ****, **% of the population reported consuming coffee. [***]
The graph below reveals us the sales of coffee ...
1.4 Foreign Trade
The international coffee trade has the particularity of not being dominated by direct relations between producing and consuming countries. Indeed, the transformations that coffee beans undergo before reaching the final consumer (***) allow intermediate countries to integrate into the world market. Thus, Switzerland, thanks to the presence of Nestlé and Nespresso, is ...
1.5 The effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the coffee market
The effects of the health crisis on the consumption of cafés-hotels-restaurants
According to the coffee union report, the turnover of the coffee sector in the hospitality sector fell by **.*% in the year ****. Some companies that focus exclusively on the coffee market have seen a drop in turnover of up to ...
2.1 The French consumer
In this section, we aim to shed light on the preferences and characteristics of French consumers. Generally speaking, coffee consumption in France is high: **% of the population said they enjoyed this beverage in ****, and **% of men and **% of women admit to being coffee fans. For people aged over **, the penetration rate ...
2.2 Key demand factors
Coffee consumption can be divided into three main segments: firstly, roasted (***) coffee which is the traditional way of consuming coffee. Secondly, we find the coffee pods such as espresso, senseo or other. Finally, we have soluble or instant coffee, which is usually in powder form.
Market share in volume in supermarkets France, ...
2.3 Demand trends
In France, recent market trends show that demand is strongly correlated with product differentiation. The latter is part of a very mature market
To achieve this, manufacturers are increasingly seeking to move upmarket. Aspects such as the quality of the aroma, the "terroir" associated with the origin of the ...
2.4 Les marques préférées des Français
Réponse à la question : Parmi ces marques, quelles sont celles que vous aimez? France, ****, en % Source: ****
On observe que parmi les ** marques les plus connues des Français, Carte d'Or, L'Or et Nespresso constituent le trio de tête, tandis que la marque généraliste Alter Eco conclue le classement ...
2.5 Les marques de café préférées des Français
Le graphique ci-dessous présente les marques de café préférées des Français.
Carte Noire est la marque de café préférée des Français avec un taux d'appréciation de **.*% tandis que Alter Eco est la moins appréciée avec un taux de **,*%.
3.1 Value chain
3.2 Coffee production process
The coffee production process consists of * stages.
Harvesting consists of picking the ripe fruits of the coffee tree, which are commonly called cherries because of their orange-red colour. Harvesting periods can last several months. On average, it is considered that a coffee tree produces *.*kg of coffee cherries per ...
3.3 Coffee processing
Thanks to the NAF code **.**Z "Processing of tea and coffee", we can with the data of the Acoss between **** and ****, the number of companies in this sector in France increased slightly (***). This is due to the fact that the market remains highly concentrated, creating tough competition that leaves little opportunity ...
3.4 Coffee distribution
Distribution of coffee for home consumption
In ****, the top five retail channels in France were: hypermarkets and supermarkets with **% of the market share, followed by hard discounts with **%, e-commerce with *% and finally convenience stores with *%.
Distribution channels for coffee for home consumption France, ****, in % Source: ****
The concentration of the market can ...
4.1 The different segments: the rise of portionable coffees
The Arabica/Robusta distinction
There are two main varieties of coffee: Arabica, which grows at higher altitudes (***) and is the most widely cultivated, and Robusta, which grows at lower altitudes and is more concentrated in caffeine. On a global scale, in ****/**** almost **% of the production was Arabica while the rest was ...
The graph below shows the evolution of the price of coffee in France. The base value is *** in ****. If the index value increases to ***, this is equivalent to an overall price increase of *%. Following this logic, we see that on average, coffee prices for coffee beans or ground coffee have increased ...
5.1 Regulatory framework
International standards exist for the production, trade and consumption of coffee. The International Coffee Agreement, which was concluded between the ** members of the International Coffee Council in **** and entered into force in ****, aims to promote international cooperation in the coffee market in order to develop a sustainable coffee economy and promote ...
6.1 Segmentation of actors
- JDE (Jacobs Douwe Egberts )
- Méo Fichaux
- Malongo, Cie Mediterranéenne des Cafés
- Café Richards
- Alter Eco, Bjorg Bonneterre (Groupe Ecotone)
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The coffee market - France
Very detailed and quantified study which underlines the weak growth of the global consumption and the acceleration of the consumption of premium products. The increase in consumption due to the Covid crisis is well analyzed.
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