Content of the study

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1.1 Presentation

Coffee consumption originated in the 15th century in Yemen, then spread to the Arab-Ottoman kingdom, and finally reached Europe. It is the second most traded commodity in the world after oil, and the most consumed drink after water. [Le Parisian] World consumption was estimated at 9 million tonnes in 2018, equivalent to 2 billion cups consumed every day. [Le Figaro] Brazil, the United States, Japan, Western and Northern European countries are the largest consumers of coffee, while most of the world's production stems from Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia and Indonesia. Typically, production occurs on small farms of less than 5 hectares. [Le Basic]

France is a mature market that continues to grow in value thanks to an ever-increasing product differentiation through different tastes and packaging. Market concentration is high and the firms' which lead the way include Nestlé, JDE, and Lavazza. 

Organic coffee continues to have both a low penetration as well as growth rate in France.

Finally, this report analyses the impact of COVID-19 on the coffee industry in France. In brief, long term effects on both demand and supply will remain moderate. 

1.2 A growing global market dominated by Europe

According to Universalis world coffee production increased from * million tonnes in the mid-****s to *.** million tonnes in ****. Today, global coffee consumption is close to ** million tonnes. The International Coffee Organization (***) estimated in **** that world coffee production was equal to *** million bags, up *.*% compared to ****. [***]
Similar to other agricultural commodities, world ...

1.3 Strong growth in the domestic market

Source: ****
In France, the sales of coffee generated an annual turnover of €*.** billion in ****. The average French person consumes the equivalent of *.*kg of coffee beans per year, placing the nation at **th spot globally. Finland are the heaviest consumers with a whopping **kg per year. In France in ****, **% of the ...

1.4 Commerce Extérieur

Le commerce international du café à la particularité de ne pas être dominé par des relations directes entre pays producteurs aux pays consommateurs. En effet, les transformations que subissent les grains de cafés avant d'arriver au consommateur final (***) permettent à des pays intermédiaires de s'intégrer dans le marché mondial. Ainsi, ...


2.1 Profile Analysis: The French Consumer

In this section we aim to shed light on the preferences and characteristics of French consumers. In general, coffee penetration in France is high: **% of inhabitants enjoyed the beverage in ****, where **% of men and **% of women identify with this means of consumption. For individuals aged above **, the penetration is even higher ...

2.2 Demand trends

Product Differentiation
In France, recent developments in the market point towards the fact that demand highly correlates to product differentiation. The latter becomes integral in a market which is highly mature. 
Indeed, in an effort to achieve this, manufacturers increasingly look to move up-market. Aspects such as the quality of the ...

2.3 Tendances de la demande

Différenciation des produits
En France, l'évolution récente du marché montre que la demande est fortement corrélée à la différenciation des produits. Cette dernière s'intègre dans un marché très mature. 
En effet, pour y parvenir, les fabricants cherchent de plus en plus à monter en ...


3.1 Market Overview

Source: ****

3.2 Production

The coffee production process consists of * key steps:
The harvest consists of harvesting the ripe fruits of the coffee tree, commonly known as cherries for their orange-red colour. Harvesting periods can last several months. On average, it is estimated that one coffee tree produces *.*kg of coffee cherries per year, ...

3.3 Distribution


Source: ****
In ****, the five largest distribution channels in France included (***).

Source: ****
The graph above is based on the NAF code **.**Z: "Tea and Coffee Processing". It shows the number of firms and employees in the aforementioned industry in France between **** and ****.
From this we can see that the number of ...


4.1 Product Overview

There are two main varieties of coffee beans: Arabica which grows at high altitudes (***) and which is the most cultivated, and Robusta which grows at a lower altitude, and is more concentrated in caffeine. In particular, Arabica beans' caffeine content is *.*% whilst Robusta's is *.*%. [***]
Globally, Arabica accounted for around **% of ...

4.2 Price Analysis

Source: ****
The graph above depicts the price evolution of coffee in France. The base value is *** in ****. If the index value increases to ***, this is equivalent to a *% price increase overall. Following this logic, we can see that, on average, prices of coffee, tea, and cocoa increased by **.*% between **** and ****. In ...


5.1 Regulatory framework

There are international standards to coffee production, trade and consumption. The International Coffee Agreement, concluded between the ** members of the International Coffee Council in **** and entered into force in ****, aims to promote international cooperation on the coffee market in order to develop a sustainable coffee economy and promote the quality and ...


6.1 Segmentation of actors

  • Nestlé
  • JDE
  • Méo Fichaux
  • Malongo

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Robin Charbonnier

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Pierre Doussau

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