The global fresh vegetable market has demonstrated a strong and consistent growth from 2020 to 2022, with a slight decline anticipated in 2023. China remains the dominant producer, contributing significantly to the industry with 616.20 million metric tons of vegetables in 2022. France, the second-largest vegetable producer in Europe after Spain, has observed fluctuations in production as well as in consumer consumption. French market gardening has seen an increase in the average size of farms from 9 hectares in 2010 to 12 hectares in 2020, and while the sector's employment heavily leans towards fixed-term contracts (88,000 out of 100,000 positions), it is facing adverse impacts due to climate hazards like storm Ciaran and flooding in Hauts-de-France. Despite a growing trend towards vegetarian and flexitarian diets, French households' purchasing power has been challenged by inflation, which hit 5.2% in 2022, affecting food consumption. The trade balance for vegetables in France has consistently been in deficit, with imports exceeding exports and a coverage rate below 100. Overall, while the global and French markets for fresh vegetables are generally on an upward trajectory, they are influenced by economic factors, climatic conditions, and changing consumer preferences..Title: Evolution and Adaptation in France's Market Gardening Sector The French market gardening sector, an integral part of the nation's agricultural fabric, has seen a notable evolution in terms of market presence, production, and consumer trends. This sector, which represents the meticulous labor of producing a diversity of fresh vegetables, has had both growth and challenges in the recent years, particularly when it comes to the changing climate, consumer diets, and economic factors influencing production and consumption. Market gardeners in France have adopted various strategies to navigate the competitive landscape, including forming cooperatives such as Société d'Intérêt Collectif Agricole (SICA), which strengthens their ties to local communities. This local anchoring is pivotal for the success of market gardeners as it allows for effective negotiation with wholesale markets and the establishment of robust partnerships. Another notable trend is the shift toward short distribution channels like AMAPs, where consumers pre-purchase a share of the harvest, reinforcing the direct relationship between the producer and the consumer. In the scope of numeric trends, there has been a rise in the number of market garden farms between 2010 and 2020, with a total of around 15,347 farms in 2020, showing an upward trend of over one thousand additional structures from previous years. Employment in the sector is significant, employing around 100,000 people in 2023, most on fixed-term contracts due to the seasonal nature of the work. Regionally, notable areas such as Hauts-de-France, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, Bretagne, and Occitanie dominate in terms of surface area, collectively making up more than half of the country's total area for vegetable production. However, the sector is not spared by the harsh hand of nature, with climatic hazards like storms and flooding posing substantial threats to the stability of production activities. On the global scale, the fresh vegetable market has witnessed steady growth, with China leading as the major player, representing around 40% of the world's agricultural land dedicated to vegetable production. France also has made its mark as Europe's second-largest vegetable producer after Spain, with an increasing trend in fresh vegetable production up until 2022, although there is a slight decline anticipated in 2023. Consumption patterns in France have been influenced by evolving dietary trends, with an increase in vegetarian and flexitarian diets. Approximately between 2 to 3 percent of the French population follow meat-free diets and, interestingly, more than half of the population has expressed a desire to shift.### Key Market Gardener Players Capitalizing on Diverse Strategies and Innovations The market gardening landscape is vibrant, characterized by an amalgamation of traditional practices and innovative approaches, catering to the demand of both local and international markets. The key players in the market gardening sector leverage diverse strategies to remain competitive and offer their produce effectively to various consumer segments. **Agricultural Cooperatives (SICA Type)** such as the Société d'Intérêt Collectif Agricole are emblematic of collaborative efforts within the sector. These cooperatives represent a powerful union between farmers and stakeholders, including wholesalers and retailers. SICAs are instrumental in localizing the vegetable production and enhancing the territorial link through price negotiations and partnership establishments. They carve out a niche in the competitive market by solidifying the integration of producers within the local economic environment. **Specialized Shipping Companies** are the engines propelling market gardeners into international territories. They boast experienced exporters who master the art of logistics, from consolidation and packaging to the global distribution of perishable goods. These companies are key to transforming small-scale local produce into globally recognized products, navigating the complex landscape of international trade. **Direct Sales Channels** like AMAPs (Associations pour le maintien d'une agriculture paysanne) signify a turn towards consumer-producer intimacy. They embrace the short distribution chain ethos, selling directly to consumers and bypassing conventional retail barriers. Through the subscription model of purchasing seasonal harvests, AMAPs have cultivated a loyal customer base who value fresh, locally-sourced produce. This initiative empowers market gardeners with greater control over prices and tighter bonds with end-users. Within this competitive and innovative arena, key players such as **Anefa**, are noted for their in-depth analysis of the market gardeners' market, dissecting the distribution of employment and observing prevalent contract types, often seasonally adjusted, to ensure agility and resilience in meeting vibrant market demands. This multi-faceted market boasts a plethora of market gardeners, from traditional farms leaning on proven practices to organic cultivators who bank on the increasing consumer consciousness towards sustainable agriculture. The evolving permaculture movement is also taking root, unlocking natural farming practices that promise higher resilience and ecological balance. These players, each with its unique value proposition, sculpt the market gardening sector's presence. From the traditional and expansive fields of conventional farming to the eco-conscious patches of organic cultivators, and from the cooperative force of SICAs to the global reach afforded by specialized shippers, the market gardening sector is a vivid tape
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Summary and extracts

1 Synthèse du marché

1.1 Definition and presentation

Market gardening is the intensive facet of vegetable production, mainly intended for sale as fresh produce. A market gardener is a farmer who grows vegetables. Market gardening encompasses the cultivation of fresh vegetables, whether under cover or in the open field. This farming practice is characterized by great diversity, both in the types of vegetables grown and in the cultivation and marketing methods employed.Market gardeners are active throughout France, with a particularly strong presence in Brittany, Aquitaine, Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.

France is Europe's second-largest vegetable producer after Spain, and fresh vegetable production is set to increase between 2020 and 2022, before declining slightly in 2023. Our study will focus on fresh vegetable production in France; vegetables processed into canned or frozen products will not be included in our scope of analysis.

It should be noted that, worldwide, the fresh vegetable market is doing well, and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 2. 8% between 2022 and 2028. China amply dominates the market, with 40% of the world's agricultural land used for vegetable production, and over 615 million metric tons of fresh vegetables produced in 2022.

In France, the market evolves in line with consumer trends, and growers must also adapt to the vagaries of the weather, which have a major impact on harvests.

1.2 A global market dominated by China

In ****, the global fresh vegetable market was estimated at $***.** billion, and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of *. *% between **** and ****[***]. Based on these estimates, we can produce the graph below:

Global fresh vegetable market sales World, ****-****, in billions of dollars Source: ****

Projections therefore suggest that the ...

1.3 A French market where production and consumption have fallen slightly in recent years

French household consumption of fresh vegetables France, ****-**** Source: ****

Over the period ****-****, there is a general upward trend, with annual variations but steady growth over the long term. Sales by value have risen significantly, from **** million euros in **** to ***** million euros in ****, representing an increase of **.*%. However, there will be ...

1.4 Balance of trade

Vegetable market trade balance France, ****-****, in millions of dollars Source: ****

Imports of vegetables have gradually increased over the years, rising from *.* billion euros in **** to *.** billion euros in ****. Similarly, exports have also increased over the same period, reaching *.** billion euros in ****, compared to *.** billion euros in ****. The coverage rate, which ...

2 Demand analysis

2.1 French consumer habits

Monthly budget for fruit and vegetables France, ****, in € Source: ****

The breakdown of the monthly budget devoted to fruit and vegetables in France reveals a significant prevalence of respondents allocating between ** and *** euros or more to these products, together representing **% of respondents. This distribution suggests a priority given to consumption of fruit ...

2.2 Falling purchasing power of French households

Inflation rate trend France, ****-****, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, % Source : INSEE Inflation will rise sharply in ****, to *.*%. **** is also a highly inflationary year, despite a slight decrease compared to ****. Foodstuffs and certain vegetables have seen their prices rise sharply (***). With this sharp rise and declining purchasing power, the French are making trade-offs in their spending, ...

2.3 Trends in vegetarian and vegan diets

In France, although the number of vegetarians remains lower than in other European nations, eating habits are evolving rapidly. There is a growing demand for meat substitutes and vegetarian products. Indeed, an estimated *.*% of the French population, or around *.* million people, have chosen not to eat meat. This trend is supported ...

2.4 Slackening demand for organic vegetables

the production of organic products is significant in France. In fact, almost * million hectares will be organic by ****, and **.*% of French farmland will be organic. Finally, **% of French farms are involved in organic farming.

Evolution of organic land used for organic vegetable production France, ****-****, in hectares Source : Agencebio The figures ...

3 Market structure

3.1 Value chain

A strategy frequently adopted by market gardeners is to join forces with agricultural cooperatives of the Société d'Intérêt Collectif Agricole (***) type. These structures enable collaboration between farmers and other players in the sector, such as their customers, wholesalers or retailers. This association strengthens the link with the territory ...

3.2 Number of companies and employees

Number of farms by specialization France, ****-****, in values Source: ****

In ****, there were *,**** market garden farms, representing an increase of over *,*** structures compared to previous years. It should be noted that horticulture and market gardening are the smallest farm types in terms of numbers, but they are the only agricultural specializations ...

3.3 A sector heavily impacted by climatic hazards

Market gardeners are regularly confronted with the vagaries of the weather, which can have a significant impact on their harvests. Extreme weather events such as storm Ciaran in November **** andthe recent flooding in the Hauts-de-France region in January **** have highlighted the vulnerability of this industry to unpredictable weather conditions.

These phenomena ...

4 Offer analysis

4.1 Offer typology

France remains deeply rooted in its agricultural heritage, despite the decline in arable land in favor of urbanized areas. This situation means that many products retain their ***% French origin. Among these products, fruit and vegetables take pride of place, offering great diversity throughout the year. Here are just a few examples ...

4.2 Sales prices

Change in average vegetable prices France, ****-****, in € Source: ****

The average price per kilo of vegetables fluctuated considerably between **** and ****, although the average price per kilo rose by almost **% between these two years.

A peak is reached in ****, with an average price per kilo of €*.**. There are several possible reasons for ...

4.3 Sale of downgraded "ugly" vegetables

Breakdown of fruit and vegetable production by size France, ****, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, %, % Source: ****

Ungauged produce accounts for a significant proportion of total production(***). These ungauged products are deemed too small, too twisted or too ugly to be sold, and will therefore be excluded from sales channels. A few of these vegetables may be fed ...

5 Regulations

5.1 Decree no. 55-1126 of August 19, 1955 ensures vegetable quality

This *-article decree aims to regulate the sale of fruit and vegetables to ensure quality, traceability and transparency for consumers. Here is a summary of the main ideas behind the various articles:

Article *: The decree applies to the sale and transport of all types of fruit and vegetables, fresh, dry, dried ...

5.2 The hygiene package

The "Hygiene Package" represents a set of European regulations which are directly applicable in all EU member states. It covers the entire food chain, from primary production, whether animal or vegetable, to distribution to end consumers, including the food industry, the catering trade and transport. This legislation was initiated following the ...

5.3 Act no. 2021-1357 of October 18, 2021 to protect farmers' income

Law no. ****-****, passed on October **, ****, aims to protect farmers' remuneration by restoring balance to commercial relations between producers, suppliers and distributors in the agricultural and food sector.

Among the reforms introduced, producers and manufacturers will now be required to formalize contracts for the sale of agricultural products in writing, as ...

6 Positioning the players

6.1 Segmentation of market gardeners

First, let's recall the difference between market gardening and horticulture, which can sometimes be confused.Market gardening encompasses the production of plants for food. This includes vegetable and garden crops such as tomatoes, eggplants, melons, leeks, lettuces, radishes, cabbages, cucumbers and berries, among others. Horticultural cultivation, on the other hand, encompasses ...

List of charts

  • Distribution of types of employment contracts on the market gardeners' market
  • Number of farms by specialization
  • Average farm size by specialization
  • Distribution of hectares used for fresh vegetable production worldwide
  • Top 10 most-produced vegetables
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