1.1 Definition of the oyster market :
According to the Larousse the oysters are " bivalve marine molluscs, edible, fixed to sea rocks by a valve in their shell, which are farmed (oyster farming) in parks and whose species (Belon, Portuguese, etc.) are mainly eaten during the "r" months (September to April), outside the breeding period »
The first cultures of flat oysters developed as early as the 17th century in France, taking advantage of the loss of the role of salt as a currency, which then freed the salt marshes [ stephanedecotterd.com ] . Spat (larvae) resources were exhausted in France as early as 1850. Portuguese hollow oysters then became the majority in France (up to 80% of the production in 1960). Decimated by a disease in the 1970s, it has been replaced by the Japanese hollow oyster since then. The latter remains the most cultivated oyster in France today. There are two main types of oysters, the flat and the hollow. Since 2008, a new epizootic disease has been affecting young French oysters The oyster farming activity is therefore subject to strong risks that impact its economy.
Oyster farming makes part of the shellfish farming business which refers to the farming of any edible shellfish: mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, abalones. More broadly, oysters are commonly classified as seafood (molluscs and crustaceans) The oyster market is therefore a sub-segment of the seafood market and more broadly of the aquatic products market .
1.2 A European market dominated by France
Within the European Union, oysters are one of the five main farmed species according to european Observatory of Markets in Fishery and Aquaculture Products, **** edition . Thus, in ****, nearly **% of the European Union's oyster production will take place in France: in that same year, ***,*** tons oysters were grown in the country. [***]
1.3 A dynamic and leading domestic market in the euro area
France, according to the Assessment of the French fisheries and aquaculture sector **** sold in ***,*** tonnes of oysters for consumption in **** for a value of *** million euros This makes it by far the best selling shellfish product by far, ahead of mussels and other shellfish
The value of french exports of ...
2.1 Cyclical demand remains concentrated despite year-round product availability
Oysters are generally consumed during the last * months of the year with an explosion of demand in December over the Christmas period. [***] The oyster market is therefore very seasonal, with **% of sales made between November and January and almost **% in December alone. This demand concentration puts pressure on supply at the ...
2.2 Demand dependent on the economic and ecological context
The oyster is a festive or even luxury product and not a basic necessity The economic context is therefore having a strong impact on the demand for oysters which varies according to the purchasing power of consumers. Thus, by the end of ****, West France was advancing **% unsold in Charente-Maritime, Normandy or ...
3.1 A network of small producers still focused on the domestic market
In an oyster market that is still very much oriented towards the national market, the main players remain the oyster farmers (***)
Downstream of the chain, producer-shippers and dispatching establishments feed the distribution channels (***). [***]
3.2 Quality local production
The main French oyster basins
France has several important oyster farming regions. Each one has its own characteristics, both in the farming techniques used and in the differentiating aspects of its products
Norman oysters are fleshy and iodized, appreciated by a large proportion of consumers. The most famous varieties in ...
3.3 A distribution mainly intended for the restaurant industry, which still has significant penetration potential in France
First of all, oysters remain a rather expensive product, inaccessible for some households, which justifies the penetration rate around **% emissions, down in **** The customer potential remains important, especially since the purchase frequency of oysters per household is approximately * times a year. [***]
However, the distribution points are numerous the company in the ...
4.1 A high price that depends on the type of oyster
The graph below shows the average price of fresh oysters in France, according to a panel survey from **** onwards. It shows that the average price of fresh oysters decreased from **** to ****. In ****, the average price of fresh oysters reached *.* euros (***).
This table represents the latest oyster quotations at Rungis Market, ...
4.2 Warming waters threaten oyster farming
Global warming is a major threat to oyster farming. First of all, the rhythm of the seasons is essential for good oyster farming: winter is essential for resting, while summer allows the transport of mineral salts to the ocean. Too much drought prevents large oysters from growing. This difficulty for oysters ...
4.3 Current Trends in Oyster Aquaculture
Triploid oysters: these are artificially created oysters, containing triple chromosomes instead of pairs of chromosomes, which prevents them from reproducing. Their growth cycle is shorter (***). Vegetable oysters vegetable oysters are a very fashionable product in restaurants, they have the taste of oysters without their texture. However, the higher price of this ...
5.1 Renewed regulations
The regulation of shellfish farming [***] is defined as an agricultural activity carried out in a maritime environment This activity is therefore at the interface of agricultural and maritime regulatory texts . The law n°****-*** of ** July **** of Modernisation of Agriculture and Fisheries includes new rules for the shellfish sector
-Establishment of ...
5.2 World Customs Nomenclature and Harmonized System
The Harmonized System is an international nomenclature for the classification of products. It allows participating countries to classify goods traded on a common basis for customs purposes. At the international level, the Harmonized System (***) for the classification of goods is a six-digit code system. [***]
The HS includes approximately *,*** item/product descriptions ...
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