Content of the study:
The foie gras market - France

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1.1 Presentation and definition of the market

Foie gras is a specialty food product made from the liver of a duck or goose. Under French law, foie gras is defined as the liver of a duck or goose fattened by force-feeding corn through a feeding tube, a process also known as gavage. Ducks are force-fed twice a day for 12.5 days and geese three times a day for about 17 days. Ducks are usually slaughtered at 100 days and geese at 112 days. In Spain and other countries, it is sometimes produced using natural feed [ Artisanfarmers ].

Foie gras is one of the jewels of French gastronomy. It is traditionally consumed during the end of year celebrations. The foie gras market in France is structured around the processing and marketing of palmiped foie gras, mainly ducks and secondarily geese. It brings together palmiped breeders, specialist/generalist slaughterhouses and food processing companies that transform and package the livers into finished products.

France is by far the leading producer, consumer and exporter of foie gras in the world. National production represents a very large share of European and even world production. However, the foie gras market faces many challenges: image and animal health, limiting its growth potential for the years to come.

It is also a concentrated market since a few agricultural cooperatives present throughout the sector dominate the market. A few private groups then occupy a secondary position. The remaining part of the production is dispersed among small, highly fragmented artisanal manufacturers.

The foie gras market is very seasonal. As stated above, the majority of foie gras sales of the market's leading brands are made between November and December, the holiday season. However, the dynamism of the market also relies on the ability of the players to stimulate sales throughout the year, for example during events that require the services of caterers (corporate events, weddings, etc.)


1.2 The world market for foie gras

Key market figures

The market for foie gras is mainly concentrated in Europe, the United States and China, but the increasing availability of foie gras has made it a popular dish in many other parts of the world. Foie gras is a luxury dish, although foie gras produced from duck liver ...

1.3 The foie gras market in France

Key figures for the market in France

The production of prepared and preserved goose or duck liver in France amounted to **,*** tonnes in volume in **** according to the Comité interprofessionnel des palmipèdes à foie gras (***). [***] .

Main export customer countries France, ****, in % Source: ****

Evolution of the trade balance imports - exports of ...

1.4 The impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the foie gras market

Foie gras has not enjoyed a strong resilience to the Covid-**-induced health crisis. Indeed, Michel Fruchet, president of the interprofessional foie gras centre, said: "With the closure of restaurants and then the absence of foreign customers in Paris throughout the summer of ****, consumption drops by ** to **% ". The cancellation of numerous ...


2.1 Demand for foie gras in France

Despite the difficult consumption context, foie gras managed to attract additional consumers in ****. In ****, foie gras sales in supermarkets amounted to ***.* million [***]

Average quantity of foie gras purchased in the year by households France, ****-****, in grams Source: ****

The economic and financial situation of households

It has a strong influence on ...

2.2 Seasonal consumption

The graph below represents the proportion of searches for a given term in a given region during a given period, relative to when it was most searched for (***). Thus, a value of ** means that the keyword was used less often in the region, and a value of * means that there is ...

2.3 Producers face growing ethical concerns

This is one of the main determinants of the foie gras market in France Households are the main buyers of foie gras . Scientific reports, advocacy by environmental or animal rights NGOs, or certain journalistic investigations are likely to have a significant and lasting impact on sales.

Indeed, as the graphs below, ...


3.1 A production system concentrated in three regions

The value chain of foie gras production

Source: ****

Geographical distribution of foie gras production

French foie gras production is based on palmiped foie gras farms, which are concentrated in three French regions: South-West France (***) and Alsace. After the breeders, the slaughterhouses and processing companies that produce fresh, semi-cooked or cooked foie ...

3.2 A French market dominated by agricultural cooperatives

Today in France, the foie gras producer market is highly concentrated, but its economic fabric is fragmented. The market is dominated by agricultural cooperatives with a large portfolio of brands, which together account for more than **% of the sector's total turnover.

In order of importance, they play a complementary role:

some ...

3.3 Different distribution channels

In ****, more than *,*** tons of foie gras were marketed through mass distribution networks (***), i.e more than **% of national consumption of foie gras in volume. In value, these sales represented over *** million euros [***].

Other distribution channels for domestic production are:

Restaurateurs; Caterers ; Food industry professionals producing ready-made meals or products based ...


4.1 Typology and labels

Different products

**% of mass-market sales are raw foie gras and **% are processed foie gras (***).

The raw foie gras must still be cooked, prepared and seasoned within one week of purchase. There are three grades: "extra", "first choice" and "all". The fresh foie gras has been lightly cooked (***) and is sold ...

4.2 Price ranges by segment type

The average consumer price of foie gras depends primarily on the type of palmiped from which the liver is derived. Duck foie gras accounts for **% of total national production [***] Goose livers, which are more expensive, account for only *% of this. In fact, geese are more expensive to raise and feed than ...

4.3 New trends, with foie gras without force-feeding

New ways to make foie gras

It is considered one of France's finest dishes, but also one of the most controversial. Foie gras is traditionally made by force-feeding geese to fatten their livers, a process described as cruel by animal rights groups. But now French scientists have developed an alternative production ...


5.1 The composition of foie gras

As foie gras is an integral part of the French gastronomic and cultural heritage, it benefits de facto from legal protection as regards its composition and origin. The definition of foie gras products is detailed in the Decree n°**-*** of August *, **** relating to preparations based on foie gras communicated by ...

5.2 Designations and controls

The origin of foie gras

Protected geographical indication (***). "Duck foie gras from the South-West of France" is a designation that has been in force since ****. According to European regulations, duck foie gras must weigh more than ***g.

A decree of ** December ****, amending the decree of * August ****, introduced a mutual recognition clause. ...

5.3 World Customs Nomenclature and Harmonized System

The Harmonized System is an international nomenclature for the classification of goods. It allows participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis for customs purposes. At the international level, the Harmonized System (***) for the classification of goods is a six-digit code system. [***]

The HS contains approximately *,*** item/product descriptions ...


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Publicado en 31/01/2022 by Thibaut Reinhard - Biocanna Technologies SRL

We got the numbers we needed. Excellent study

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Publicado en 09/01/2022 by Hugo Schott - Businesscoot

Note the recent but steady take-off of organic feed for farm animals, which is leading to a renewal of research and development in the sector

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The work of collection, data processing and the method to estimate the market still poorly known are very relevant. Interview with the market specialist on the impact of the Covid crisis very interesting

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Good synthesis of the market with interesting figures

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