Content of the study:
The foie gras market - France

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1.1 Market overview and definition

Foie gras is a specialty food product made from the liver of a duck or goose. Under French law, foie gras is defined as the liver of a duck or goose fattened by force-feeding corn through a feeding tube, a process also known as gavage. Ducks are force-fed twice a day for 12.5 days, and geese three times a day for around 17 days. Ducks are generally slaughtered at 100 days and geese at 112 days. In Spain and other countries, foie gras is sometimes produced using natural feed[Artisanfarmers].

Foie gras is one of the jewels in the crown of French gastronomy. It is traditionally eaten during the festive season. The foie gras market in France is structured around the processing and marketing of foie gras from palmipeds, mainly ducks and secondarily geese. It brings together palmiped breeders, specialized/general slaughterhouses and food processing companies that transform and package the livers into finished products.

France is by far the world's leading producer, consumer and exporter of foie gras. National production accounts for a very large share of European and even world production. However, the foie gras market faces a number of challenges: image and animal health, limiting its growth potential for years to come.

French foie gras production remained stable during the first half of the 2010s, before falling between 2016 and 2017. The following years were marked by production growth, which was quickly curbed by the health crisis.

It's also a concentrated market, dominated by a handful of agricultural cooperatives present across the entire sector. A few private groups occupy a secondary position. The remainder of production is dispersed among small, highly fragmented artisanal manufacturers.

The foie gras market is highly seasonal. As mentioned above, the majority of foie gras sales by the market's leading brands take place between November and December, during the festive season. However, the market's dynamism also relies on the ability of players to stimulate sales throughout the year, for example at catered events (corporate events, weddings, etc.)

1.2 The global foie gras market

Key figures for the world market

The foie gras market is mainly concentrated in Europe, the USA and China. However, the growing availability of foie gras is making it a popular dish in more and more parts of the world. Foie gras is considered a luxury ingredient, although foie gras produced ...

1.3 The foie gras market in France

Key market figures for France

In ****, France's production of goose and duck liver preparations and preserves totaled **,*** tons in volume[***]. In ****, France exported **% of its production, generating foreign sales of ** million euros.

Main export customer countries France, ****, in Source: ****

To meet domestic demand, *,*** tonnes of foie gras were imported in ****, up ...

1.4 The impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the foie gras market

Foie gras did not enjoy a strong resilience to the Covid-**-induced health crisis. Indeed, Michel Fruchet, President of the Centre Interprofessionnel du Foie Gras, said: "With restaurants closed and no foreign customers in Paris for the whole summer of ****, consumption is down by **-**%. The cancellation of numerous events, and ...


2.1 Demand for foie gras in France

French foie gras consumption

In ****, * out of ** French people will be eating foie gras. [***]

The majority (***) of foie gras is purchased as a semi-cooked product.

Foie gras purchase format France, ****, in % [FranceAgriMer Source: ****

Foie gras, a quality product that inspires confidence

For **% of French people, the "Foie Gras de France" logo ...

2.2 Seasonal consumption

The graph below shows the proportion of searches for the term "foie gras" in France, in relation to when it was most searched for (***). In recent years, demand has been highly cyclical, peaking at Christmas and New Year.

Evolution of interest for the search "foie gras" on Google France, ****-****, in ...

2.3 Producers face growing ethical concerns

This is one of the main drivers of the foie gras market in France. Households are the main purchasers of foie gras. Scientific reports, pleas from environmental or animal rights NGOs, or certain journalistic investigations are likely to have a significant and lasting impact on sales. Indeed, as the graphs below ...


3.1 A production system concentrated in three regions

The foie gras production value chain

Source: ****

Geographical distribution of foie gras production

French foie gras production is based on foie gras palmiped farms, which are concentrated in three French regions: southwestern France (***) and Alsace. After the breeders, the next step in the value chain is the slaughterhouses and processing plants ...

3.2 A French market dominated by agricultural cooperatives

In ****, France will have no fewer than *,*** foie gras producers. The market is dominated by agricultural cooperatives with a broad portfolio of brands, which together account for over **% of the sector's total sales.

Other players, in order of importance, include

a few subsidiaries of mass retail groups producing foie gras for ...

3.3 Different distribution channels

The majority of national foie gras consumption is channeled through supermarket networks. In ****, *,*** tonnes were sold in hypermarkets and supermarkets, down *.*% on the previous year. For the **** festive season, supermarket sales were down **.*% in volume compared to the **** season, but only *% in value. This shows that the segment is holding up ...


4.1 Typology and labels

Different products

Raw foie gras accounts for **% of supermarket sales, and processed foie gras (***) for **%.

Raw foie gras must still be cooked, prepared and seasoned within a week of purchase. It comes in three qualities: "extra", "premier choix" and "tout venant". Fresh foie gras has been lightly cooked (***) and is sold ...

4.2 Price ranges by segment type

The average consumer price of foie gras depends primarily on the type of palmiped from which the liver comes. Duck foie gras accounts for **% of total national production[***]. More expensive goose foie gras accounts for only *%. In fact, geese are more expensive to raise and force-feed than ducks.

The price then ...

4.3 New trends: foie gras without force-feeding

New ways to make foie gras

It's considered one of France's finest delicacies, but also one of its most controversial. Traditionally, foie gras is made by force-feeding geese to fatten their livers, a process described as cruel by animal rights groups. Today, however, French scientists have developed an alternative production method ...


5.1 Controlling the composition of foie gras

As foie gras is an integral part of France's gastronomic and cultural heritage, it enjoys de facto legal protection as regards its composition and origin. The definition of foie gras-based products is set out in Decree no. **-*** of August *, **** on foie gras-based preparations à base de foie gras communicated by the ...

5.2 Designations and controls

Where foie gras comes from

Protected Geographical Indication (***). "Canard à foie gras du Sud-Ouest" has been in force since ****. According to European regulations, duck foie gras must weigh more than ***g.

A decree of December **, ****, amending the decree of August *, ****, introduced a mutual recognition clause. Foie gras preparations manufactured or marketed in ...

5.3 World customs nomenclature and harmonized system

The Harmonized System is an international nomenclature for product classification. It enables participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis for customs purposes. At international level, the Harmonized System (***) for the classification of goods is a six-digit code system. [***]

The HS comprises around *,*** item/product descriptions, which appear as ...


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Publicado en 31/01/2022 by Thibaut Reinhard - Biocanna Technologies SRL

We got the numbers we needed. Excellent study

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Publicado en 09/01/2022 by Hugo Schott - Businesscoot

Note the recent but steady take-off of organic feed for farm animals, which is leading to a renewal of research and development in the sector

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The work of collection, data processing and the method to estimate the market still poorly known are very relevant. Interview with the market specialist on the impact of the Covid crisis very interesting

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