1.1 Presentation and market definition
The olive is a typically Mediterranean fruit, which is consumed in two forms: either as a condiment or as a table olive, or it is pressed to produce olive oil.
Olives are not edible immediately after harvesting; table olives are obtained by processing the fruit to make it softer and less bitter. This treatment usually involves maceration in cold water, then boiling and finally resting for months in a brine composed of salt water and possibly herbs. Another possibility is to replace this last phase with the conservation in olive oil. Olive oil is obtained by crushing fresh fruit, then filtering, centrifuging, heating (or not) the paste to extract the oil. There are various industrial processes for the extraction of oil, the main ones are cold extraction (which should give the best oil), continuous extraction or integral method. Olive oil is one of the main ingredients of the Mediterranean diet, known as the Cretan diet; and in addition it is also used for cosmetics.
In this study, we will therefore focus on olive production, consumption of table olives and olive oil .
However, olive oil represents the overwhelming majority of production, with about 95% of olive production dedicated to the production of oil.
1.2 The world market is dominated by the Mediterranean
World olive oil consumption is estimated at *.* million tonnes in **** . The largest increases in olive oil consumption in **** occurred in Russia (***). According to the magazine, this consumption gives rise to Agra Power supply to a annual turnover of approximately €** billion .
As shown in the graph below, the main olive oil producers ...
1.3 Olive in France: a market of consumers rather than producers
Estimated turnover of the French market According to the international olive council , france consumed ***,*** tonnes of olive oil in **** This corresponds to about *.*% of world consumption, i.e. an estimated turnover of *** million euros. The consumption of table olives was **,*** tonnes according to the Afidol . The wholesale price being about *,*€ HT/kg ...
2.1 French consumption lags behind its Mediterranean neighbours
Olive oil is still poorly consumed compared to other Mediterranean countries The estimated consumption of olive oil in France in **** is ***,*** tonnes of olive oil . This figure puts France at the top of the list third largest in Europe of olive oil consumers, far behind Italy (***). An increase in the consumption ...
2.2 Olive oil in competition with butter in French cuisine
According to the graph below, the preference for olive oil is much more pronounced in the South and South-East of France and less marked in northern France in general. The penetration rate of olive oil among the French is estimated at **.*% in **** according to Stevi (***) with an average of three bottles ...
3.1 Value chain of the olive oil sector
The diagram above illustrates the olive oil production chain from the olive grove to the final consumer. Several actors can be involved during the production process: supermarkets, mills and cooperatives and olive growers.
The the production process of olive oil remains relatively unmechanized The harvesting of olives in particular is ...
3.2 French production is carried out by a few regions
France is the "North Pole" of olive oil producers in Europe. As can be seen on the map below, France has ** olive oil production areas, * of which are classified as PDO (***): Nyons, Vallée des Baux de Provence, Aix en Provence, Haute Provence, Nice, Nîmes, Corse, Provence France has about ...
3.3 An oil market dominated by private labels with low margins
According to Nielsen data taken over by a study of the University of Lille, the distribution of olive oil in France appears to be captured to a very large extent by private labels. Indeed, by adding the "classic" private labels with those "thematic" and "entry-level", we obtain a total market share ...
4.1 Typology of olive oils
There are four different types of olive oil
Extra virgin olive oil (***). It has a strong taste and aroma. Virgin olive oil (***): it is an olive oil of superior quality but with an aroma that may contain some imperfections and an acidity level between *.*° and *°. Olive oil e (***) Olive-pomace oil or ...
4.2 Wholesale oil prices that fluctuate with the harvest
The graph above illustrates the volatility of world olive oil prices . These price variations, depending on many factors, are reflected in the prices paid by the final consumer. This volatility is explained by the fact that olive oil production depends on olive harvests, which can vary greatly depending on climatic ...
4.3 Retail oil prices for French consumers
Table of olive oil prices We will distinguish four different types of oils: entry-level oils, private labels, specialty brands, and premium oils. For the most part, we will rely on the carrefour website and compare the price per litre of oils. It should be noted that, except for entry-level oils, all ...
4.4 Typology of table olives
Table olives are available in black or green, and in seasoning. They can be stuffed (***).
Green olives, preferred by the French (***) sell for between *€ per kg for a jar of natural pitted green olives Carrefour and **,*€/kg for a assortment of green olives stuffed with peppers and almonds.
Black olives sell ...
4.5 A move upmarket on the oil market
Producers of bottled olive oil try to promote the authenticity of their oil and its heritage of the Mediterranean "terroir"
With the pressure on olive oil supply, despite the slight decline in French demand, some producers are offering "top-of-the-range" products with a supposedly higher quality than their competitors.
Olive oil producers ...
5.1 Strict but often bypassed oil regulations
In France, the labelling rules are strict and must objectively represent the quality of the product. In many cases, foreign olive oil producers practice misleading labelling aimed at attributing to their product a class higher in terms of organoleptic quality or to mislead the consumer with terms that do not correspond ...
Diversified industrial groups
Lesieur Bungee Unilever Deoleo April Benedicta Mediaco
Major players specialising in olives
Puget Carapelli Crespo Tramier Tropic Apéro
High-end olive and oil producers
Olive trees Castelas Mill Margier Mill
- Groupe Avril
- Crespo (Comptoir méditerranéen de l’olive, Comolive)
- Tropic Apéro
- Oliviers & Co
- Moulin Castelas
- Moulin Margier (Domaine La Michelle)
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