1.1 Definition and scope of the study
Oilseeds are plants whose seeds and fruits (rich in fat) are used for human and animal food, but also for energy and industrial purposes. The oil is extracted by the process of trituration, an operation of crushing by friction. Among the main seeds used are rapeseed, sunflower, peanut, soybean, and sesame.
The world oilseed market has shown solid growth in recent years. It benefits from the increase in world demand and the new consumption habits of emerging countries. Not only are oilseeds essential in animal and human food, but they are also increasingly used for industrial and energy purposes.
Among the recent developments on the oilseed market in France, an unprecedented price surge has been observed since the beginning of the war in Ukraine. Grain and oilseed prices have risen very rapidly. Ukraine was among the top 5 grain exporters in the world before the conflict, and a key exporter of sunflower oil to the European Union.
1.2 Global market
The world oilseed market is a very dynamic market, as shown by the data in the graph below, taken from the OECD and FAO agricultural outlook.
From **** to ****, world soybean production is expected to increase by +**.*%, protein meal production by +**.*% and vegetable oil production by +**.*%.
World oilseed production and forecasts World, ...
1.3 National market
In total, ****.* thousand tons of oilseeds were produced in France in ****.
In that same year, France had ****.* thousand hectares of cultivation area and has **.* thousand tons of yield per hectare.
On the graph below, which reports data from a conjunctural report of FranceAgriMer dated March ****, we can see that France produces ...
1.4 Foreign trade
Until ****, when imports and exports were almost equal, France exported more oilseeds than it imported.
Moreover, exports were clearly on the rise from **** to **** with a variation of +**.*%, as were imports, which increased by almost as much over the same period (***).
Foreign trade in oilseeds France, ****-****, millions of $USD Source: ...
1.5 Effects of the war in Ukraine on the market
The oilseed market has recently been disrupted at the global level by the events taking place in Ukraine (***). Ukraine is a country that is a champion of agriculture, but today, with the Black Sea occupied, agricultural production can no longer leave the country, which upsets the prices of several raw materials ...
2.1 French oilseed consumption
France is a producer of oilseeds, but also a consumer. the following graph contains data on total oilseed consumption in France, as well as details by type. It can be seen that rapeseed oil consumption exploded in the ****s, rising from *** thousand tonnes consumed annually in **** to **** thousand tonnes in ****, a ...
2.2 Non-animal consumption
There are many uses for oilseed derivatives, their consumption can be human, animal, but also neither, as in the case of biodiesel. This product has been used for a long time, and since the end of the **th century more research has been conducted to determine all the possible uses of ...
2.3 Dried oleaginous fruits
The oil seeds are the "embryos" of the plants, while the oleaginous dried fruits are dried fruits. Among the oleaginous dried fruits we find:
Walnuts Almonds Hazelnuts Prunes Cashew nuts Macadamia nuts Figs Apricots Pistachios Dates
These oilseeds are rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, but also in nutrients such as calcium, ...
2.4 A new market share: organic consumption
With the Covid-** crisis, the health concerns of French consumers have been brought to the forefront of their food expectations.
The trend of healthy, sustainable, local and seasonal consumption is therefore becoming more and more established, with a particular craze for "homemade" products. In ****, more than half of French people say ...
3.1 Geographical distribution of French production
In France, oilseed production can be summarized in three major sub-sectors: rapeseed (***), sunflower and soybean.
The data in the map and table below, taken from a FranceAgriMer economic report dating from March ****, give us valuable information on the most productive French regions, all oilseeds combined.
In first place, we find the ...
3.2 The different production units
Several production steps are necessary for the production of oilseeds.
Oilseed production sites
Translation : Trituration = crushing; Estérification = esterification; Raffinage et/ou conditionnement huiles végétales = Refinement and/or plant oils packaging; Prétraitement graisses animales, huiles usagées = Pre-treatment of animal fats, waste oils
It can be ...
4.1 Raw material prices
The oilseed market, being a raw material market, depends on the real time price of the inputs that make it up.
The graph below shows the evolution of the average price of all oilseeds combined, based on a **** base of ***. The variation is quite wide.
After having been rather stable for ...
4.2 Product overview
Oilseeds are very rich in fat, which gives them a high oil content.
French rapeseed is type **. Their characteristic is the absence of erucic acid, and also low quantities of glucosinolates. The graph below shows the data on their composition: in a rapeseed, we find mostly fat (***).
Composition of rapeseed France, ...
4.3 Organic products, a French asset
The consumption of organically grown oilseeds is a trend that is becoming more and more important in the daily life of the French people. In order to meet this demand, their cultivation has increased considerably in recent years in France.
The graph below shows the area of organic oilseed cultivation in ...
5.1 French regulations
The marketing of oilseeds is carried out by collecting organizations declared to FranceAgriMer.
The laws that apply to the production and trade of oilseeds in France are those that make up Chapter VI of the French Rural and Maritime Fishing Code "Les céréales" (***).
These laws are easily consulted here ...
Avril *th French food group (***) active for ** years : producer
The farmers' associations are numerous, and their goal is to promote the development of their partners, strengthen their cohesion and innovation.
- Puget (Groupe Avril)
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