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1.1 Definition and presentation

The first version of a “rules of the road” code of conduct dates back to 1898 in Milan. The code mentioned a primitive version of a driving license, defined as "concession" and issued by a special municipal commission after preliminary checks on the applicant, about his psychophysical and technical management of the vehicle. Three years later in 1901 an official national regulation was established, with mentions on the obligation to pass specific tests and consequently obtain a license. 

From 1901 until today the normative has undoubtedly undergone a number of transformations, although the conceptual and functional meaning of a license, whatever its form or name, remains. A driving license was and is indeed aimed at assuring the ability to drive a specific vehicle. In Italy the preparation for the driving examinations can be done individually or through a driving school. Driving schools therefore provide a specialized training and education, both theoretical and practical, in view of the driving test.

A number of forces are believed to play a role into shaping the current and potential developments in the industry. The business is expected to leverage from the great majority of aspirant drivers in Italy who choose to prepare through driving schools or the increasing number of owned vehicles on the territory. On the other hand, the small size of the players and the progressive changing perception of owning a vehicle, are variables which could counterbalance those potential positive effects.

1.2 Italy’s driving school market

An estimation of the driving school market size can be provided accounting for two variables: the average price per person and the number of licenses issued through a driving school.
Average price paid per person is *** euros (***) Number of license tests in **** through a driving school is *,***,***.
Therefore, *** x *,***,*** equals a ...


2.1 A consistent demand

Italy is among the top European countries by number of vehicles per capita. The figure has a considerable impact on the driving school market especially because those represent the preferred channel to obtain a driving license.

Source: ****

Source: ****
In **** in fact almost **% of aspiring drivers chose to register to a driving ...

2.2 A dive into the driver's license exam

Pass versus fail
On the Italian territory in **** out of the circa * million examinations, *.* million licenses were granted, corresponding to more than **% of the tests. The result translates into a fail rate of **,*%, slightly higher than the percentage experienced the previous year (***).[***]

Source: ****
The table shows an average of the results ...

2.3 Demand determining factors

Motorization rate
In order to drive a vehicle, it is mandatory to own a license and in order to own a license it is mandatory to pass a test. Test can be organized by driving schools, consequently the number of people owning a car is a determinant of the number of ...

2.4 Perception of cars in the Italian society

Undoubtedly the conceptual and functional meaning behind the mere possession of a car, is related to the current demand and future potential of owning a car, consequently reflecting attitudes towards getting a license. In Italy, Statista’s survey on mobility statements showed the relevance the ownership of a car represents for ...

2.5 An automotive society

Progressively increasing number of cars
According to the Centro Studi e Statistiche di Unrae there are circa ** million cars on the Italian territory.

Source: ****
From **** to **** the number of automobiles on the Italian territory increased steadily year after year, until it encountered a slight decline in the years following the Great ...


3.1 Geographical distribution of the market

The number of “autoscuole” present on the Italian territory amounted in **** to approximately *,*** - which in **** counted a total of **,*** individuals involved with more than half being employees. [***]

Source: ****
It is difficult to estimate the structure of the market as the number of driving schools is considerable and it is ...


4.1 Driving school services

As mentioned, driving schools offer a particular type of education and training, which is exclusively focused on the attainment of a driving license. Due to their specific objective, service offered revolve around both theoretical and practical assistance. In Italy in fact schools which focused on road safety education, driver education and ...

4.2 License types

Description of types
There are a number of driving licenses obtainable, a first segmentation in two macro categories identifies:
Patenti inferiori - inferior licenses - (***): for motorcycles and automobiles. Patenti superiori - superior licenses - (***): for transportation vehicles, C* and C for truck drivers and D* and D for bus ...

4.3 Multiple determinants of the cost

The price of a subscription to a driving school is based on the two types of service offered – as mentioned, theory and practice preparation. Generally, the theoretical courses demand a fixed initial payment, whereas the driving lessons are based on an amount per hour.
Therefore, one can identify two different cost ...

4.4 Potential threats to the driving school industry

A force which could impact the future of the automotive industry affecting car ownership is ride-sharing. The driving variable has an indirect effect on driving schools, as it might transform the way individuals choose to move from a place to another and indeed the number of cars on the road. ...


5.1 Regulation autoscuole

National regulation on driving school activity
Ministerial decree **/**/****, n. *** used to regulate the activity of driving schools in Italy.
Article * on the business of driving schools states that “in addition to driving instruction, driving schools can also carry out the activities provided for in art. *** of the regulation implementing the Highway ...

5.2 Licence renewal

Driving licenses have an expiration date, which differs in regards to the type of license and the age of the driver.
Type A and B:
Every ** years until ** years of age Every * years between **-** years of age Every * years after ** years of age Every * years after ** years of age
Type ...


6.1 Segmentation


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chargé d'études économiques, Xerfi

Hugo Schott

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Mathieu Luinaud

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PhD Industrial transformations

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Pierre Doussau

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Arnaud Walter

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