The geothermal energy is the use of the natural heat of the soils or of the water tables as a means of heating or from power generation ( electric mainly). Sensors are buried, connected to a boiler to generate constant heat to heat a home in winter and cool it in summer. The soil temperature is, for example, at a depth of 60 cm, constantly at 14°. It is also necessary to differentiate between several types of geothermal use: shallow geothermal at low temperature, deep geothermal at high temperature and very deep geothermal at high temperature. Also, there is a high energy, low energy and very low energy geothermal energy.
Geothermal energy provides less than 4% of heat production in France and 5% of electricity production . France's potential in geothermal energy production is more than 3,000 MW of geothermal electricity, which is a significant figure. This market brings together about a hundred companies in France and more than 15,000 jobs in companies in the energy sector but also geothermal specialists.
Despite tax credits, the geothermal market is slow to take off in the residential . Major projects collective are however in preparation, particularly in Ile de France where a geothermal heating programme should enable 500,000 people to be heated by 2020. The geothermal market fell by 7% in the heat pump segment in 2017, but the recovery of the new housing market could boost this segment of the market in the coming years.
The significant decrease in the tax credit and the relative technical complexity of a geothermal installation explain the relative weakness of this market. EDF, GDF/Suez offer installation services using a network of heating craftsmen but do not have dedicated internal structures.
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