Organic waste is a category of waste that originates solely from living organisms, whether animals or plants. This waste decomposes thanks to micro-organisms and bacteria, and can thus be used to produce different sources of energy or fertilizer. There are several methods of recycling this waste, the main ones being composting (aerobic digestion) or methanization (anaerobic digestion).
In France, taking into account professional waste, there are 13.8 tons of waste per inhabitant per year. Among this waste, 14% is biologically managed (composting/methanization of organic waste) . Households produce 354 kilograms of waste per year according to the ADEME, of which one third would be of organic origin at this scale.
The recovery of organic waste thus requires a collection that takes place at different levels. Several companies have specialised in this area, and depending on the Ministry of Ecology, local actors are playing an increasing role in the management of this bio-waste.
In a sector subject to strong regulations, the prospects for development remain important, particularly with the objectives of the law of ecological transition by 2025, which provides for the sorting at source of food waste, among other things. According to Les Echos. In addition, new technologies are constantly renewing market opportunities, such as the recent development of pyrogasification.
1.2 State of play on a global scale
Globally, the market for recycling services across all components was valued in **** at USD **.** billion by GrandViewResearch. It had thus for the period ****-**** a CAGR (***) evaluated at *.*%.
Size of the market for waste recycling services World, ****-***** Source: ****
Organic waste would represent about **% of the total volume of waste per ...
1.3 European overview
Eurostat, the European Union's research and statistical institute, provides free data on waste management and waste flows in Europe.
Municipal waste generation per capita in the European Union, by country EU **, ****, in kg/capita Source: ****
The graph above shows that France is the *th country in the European Union that produces ...
1.4 In France, priority to local actions
According to Ademe's calculations, based on household waste collected by local authorities, not including green waste, a French person produces an average of *** kg of household waste per year. If we take into account all the professional waste such as agricultural, construction and industrial waste, the total amount of waste produced ...
2.1 Municipal organic waste
In a **** report, ADEME provides the following overview of the composition of municipal waste, i.e. waste managed by local authorities.
Apart from organic waste from agriculture and forestry, the distribution of municipal organic waste is given in the table below for **** :
2.2 The different actors of the demand
The demand side can be divided into four distinct segments:
*. Restaurants and grocery stores
As the main producers of kitchen waste, the former have been obliged to sort their waste since * January **** er january if they produce more than ** tons of bio-waste per year (***) [***] . If they do not have composting ...
2.3 Local and territorial authorities: managing organic waste on a public scale involves a myriad of actors
In ****, the ADEME set up a territorial approach called ConcerTO (***), based on the consultation of all the actors of a territory around the organic
The aim of this approach is to propose a methodology for working together on "organic waste" channels (***), from the sources to the outlets.
3.1 Overview of the recycling industry in France
In the **** annual report, FEDEREC's statistical observatory reports *,*** recycling companies, *,*** establishments, for a pool of **,*** full-time equivalent jobs, **% of which are permanent.
Of the recycling companies in France, **% have ** employees or less. Only *% of companies have more than *** employees.
Size distribution of recycling companies France, ****, in % Source: ****
3.2 Analysis of sector payroll by region
The table below summarises the number of companies and employees in the recycling sector by French region.
According to the following diagram, the payroll in the recycling sector in Île-de-France is the largest in France, with over *,*** employees, and the largest number of separate companies. Moreover, the average number of ...
3.3 Organic waste recycling value chain
SIA Partners gives the following chain of recovery of organic waste :
Usually, the value chain of organic waste recycling starts with its collection from the different waste producers (***).
Solutions also exist for individuals. The latter can create their own compost, subject however to certain regulations (***).
4.1 Composters and methanizers
The two main applications of organic waste recycling are composting and methanization. The first one consists of aerobic digestion (***) of organic matter; the organic waste is degraded by the combined action of bacteria, fungi and micro-organisms.
The result is a stabilized, potting soil-like product rich in minerals. It can therefore be ...
4.2 Awards and grants
The methanisation units are supported by the public authorities [***] : they benefit on the one hand from investment subsidies, generally of the order of **%, and on the other hand from a more attractive buy-back price for the gas produced. For an anaerobic digester of less than *** kW, the gas is bought ...
4.3 Problem: lack of outlets and collection
According to FEDEREC's **** annual report, the tonnage of organic waste was almost stagnant in **** (***) [***]. According to the following year's report, "the bio-waste sector is struggling to develop because of difficulties in capturing the source of waste from industry and the tertiary sector. The recovery of organic matter from treatment also struggles, ...
5.1 Obligations to catering professionals
According to the Ministry of Ecological and Solidarity Transition, since ****, supermarkets, food processing industries, restaurants, school canteens, food shops and markets that produce more than ** tons of biowaste or more than ** liters per year for oils, are obliged to sort and recycle food scraps.
Failure to comply with the law can ...
5.2 Obligations to public institutions
The regulatory and legal framework for agricultural anaerobic digestion and composting activities is published by ADEME in January ****, and lists all the laws on the subject. The general texts from the European to the municipal level are listed here :
At the European level
The European directive of ** November **** specifies the framework ...
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