1.1 Introduction and definition of the private parking market
The need for parking emerged with the democratisation of the automobile in Europe and the United States, and the need to solve the first problems of urban congestion. In 1962, the first GTM car park was built on Place des Invalides. The private parking market is a segment of the controlled parking This means paying a fee for a limited period of parking. ( Indigo Group )
There are different types of car parks in France :
- Private car parks managed by a person, company or other private body
- Private car parks for public use such as supermarket car parks with free access
- Public car parks The following are the main types of car parks, managed by the State and belonging to the municipalities and communities (roadside, underground and above-ground car parks)
Parking lot management is a very remunerative activity, dominated by a handful of actors . Two factors have profoundly changed the sector: the end of parking concessions built between the 1960s and 1980s, as well as the policies implemented in recent years greatly reducing the number of road spaces .
Municipalities are the main applicants for parking lots. Increasingly, they are calling on private parking operators (more than half of the total market for car parks in France), often coming from the building and public works sector. The latter build and then operate car parks (Vinci in particular). The SEM (semi-public company) is another possible management method and a minority of cities choose to manage this activity directly with a management company.
From new entrants (motorway concessionaires, airport managers) are interested in this a buoyant market that is not very sensitive to economic conditions This is a major change in the structure of the private parking market in France
1.2 A US-dominated global parking market
The global parking market is growing at the same pace as the global urbanization and the growth in the number of vehicles on the road . Moreover, the global automotive market is growing steadily and is expected to continue to do so in the years to come. The parking market is expected ...
1.2 A French market is growing
In ****, France had approximately *.* million regulated parking spaces (***), of which approximately *.* million paid parking spaces . To calculate the market size of private parking in France, we can use several data. [***]
On the one hand, the Indigo Group, the leader in the private car park market, states in an annual report that ...
2.1 The rise in car ownership in French households
The share of motorized households has been on the rise in France since the beginning of the century. Thus, in ****, **.*% of French households will have at least one vehicle compared to **.*% in ****.
Within these motorized households, the share of two-motorised households (***). [***]
Disparities according to household characteristics
While the rate of ...
2.2 The private car fleet in France
A car spends more than **% of its lifespan parked, and the evolution of the car fleet in France is thus naturally the first determinant of parking demand. [***]
The size of the French car fleet has been increasing overall since the beginning of the century, which is driving the need and therefore ...
2.3 Parking selection criteria
Finally, we can also look at the criteria used in the choice of a car park or parking space. According to a survey conducted by TNS Sofres in Europe, the two main criteria for choosing a car park are the price and the distance .
**% of respondents say that price has a ...
3.1 The French parking market and the concession model
As previously mentioned, there are different types of car parks (***). Thus, the parking market includes only regulated parking, on or off-street, characterised by the payment of a fee and a limited duration of parking. For example, the parking market does not include private garages and parking spaces. [***]
The private parking market ...
3.2 Indigo, undisputed market leader
Among the private players specialising in parking, the main companies are Indigo, QPark , Effia , Interparking and APCOA . Among them, Indigo, born in **** from the merger of Sogeparc and Parcs GTM and initially named Vinci Park. While APCOA dominates the European market, Indigo is the french market leader with a market share ...
4.1 The different types of parking
As previously mentioned, there are several types of car parks, depending on whether they are built or not. To give more details, the following types of car parks can be distinguished (***) :
Above-ground car parks
Above-ground car parks are single-storey car parks, usually delimited by an enclosure, barriers, etc. This type of ...
4.2 Costs and pricing of the activity
According to Turner *,*** €/m* for underground car parks and *** €/m* for surface car parks . [***]
In addition, the company Evo-park, which specialises in the construction of car parks, provides indicative costs for the construction of different types of car parks (***) :
For an overhead parking lot The average cost of construction is ...
4.3 The gradual disappearance of on-street parking in favour of car parks under construction
As a result of the interplay of many factors, including the urban design concerns and measures to limit cars in the city centre we are witnessing a shortage of parking spaces on the road in France. In ****, **% of cities declared having eliminated a significant number of roadway spaces over the last ...
4.4 Parking in cities: towards connected and multi-modal spaces
The axes of intermodality
Right now, in France, **% of home-to-work journeys are monomodal. There is therefore a real opportunity for a better fragmentation of the route, which is a key issue in the energy transition. Here are some of the areas under study in the parking sector:
Car sharing Parking for ...
5.1 Regulations on the layout of parking spaces
Parking spaces are subject to dimensional regulations concerning ground markings, depending on the type of storage:
Disabled and PRM adapted places
Since ****, it has been mandatory to have at least * % of the number of PRM-adapted seats . Places must be close to the entrance of the building (***).
In addition, they ...
5.2 Standards for the construction of a car park
The construction standards for a car park vary according to many factors:
Type: public or private Method of construction and terrain: underground, surface, aerial.. Capacity: number of places Mode of circulation inside the parking lot: one-way or two-way Etc..
Based on these criteria, the main regulatory issues are the following:
- APCOA Parking
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