Content of the study:
The private parking market - France

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1.1 Introduction and definition of the private parking market

The need for parking emerged with the democratisation of the automobile in Europe and the United States, and the need to solve the first problems of urban congestion. In 1962, the first GTM car park was built on Place des Invalides. The private parking market is a segment of controlled parking, wich consists in paying a fee for a limited period of parking. [Indigo Group]

There are different types of car parks in France :

  • Private car parks managed by a person, company or other private body,
  • Private car parks for public use such as supermarket car parks with free access,
  • Public car parks, managed by the State and belonging to the municipalities and communities (roadside, underground and above-ground car parks).

Parking lot management is a very remunerative activity, dominated by a handful of actors. Two factors have profoundly changed the sector: the end of parking concessions built between the 1960s and 1980s, as well as the policies implemented in recent years greatly reducing the number of road spaces.

Municipalities are the main applicants for parking lots. Increasingly, they are calling on private parking operators (more than half of the total market for car parks in France), often coming from the building and public works sector. The latter build and then operate car parks (Vinci in particular). The SEM (semi-public company) is another possible management method and a minority of cities choose to manage this activity directly with a management company.

New entrants (motorway concessionaires, airport managers) are interested in this buoyant market that is not very sensitive to the economic climate, and changing the structure of the private parking market in France in a major way.

1.2 A global parking market dominated by the United States

The global parking market is growing in line with global urbanization and the increasing number of vehicles on the road. In fact, the global automotive market is growing steadily and should continue its growth in the coming years, with the parking market expected to reach $*** billion by ****, up from $** billion in ...

1.3 A growing French market

In ****, France had approximately *.* million regulated parking spaces (***), of which approximately *.* million were paid parking spaces. To calculate the market size of private parking in France, we can base our calculations on several figures. [***]

On the one hand, the Indigo Group, leader in the private parking market, states in an annual ...


2.1 The increase in motorization of French households

The share of motorized households has been on the rise in France since the beginning of the century. In ****, **.*% of French households had at least one vehicle, compared with **.*% in ****.

Within these motorized households, the share of bimotorized households (***). [***]

Share of motorized households France, ****-****, in % Source: ****

Disparities according to household ...

2.2 The fleet of cars in France

A car spends more than **% of its life in a parking lot, and the evolution of the car fleet in France is thus naturally the primary determinant of parking demand. [***]

The size of the French car fleet has been increasing overall since the beginning of the century, which is driving the ...

2.3 Parking lot choice criteria

Finally, we can also look at the preferred criteria for choosing a parking lot or parking space. According to a survey conducted by TNS Sofres in Europe, the two main criteria for choosing a parking space are price and distance.

**% of respondents said that price has a high impact on ...


3.1 The French parking market and the concession model

As previously mentioned, there are different types of parking facilities (***). Thus, the parking market includes only regulated parking, on or off-street, characterized by the payment of a fee and a limited parking time. For example, the parking market does not include garages and private parking spaces. [***]

The private parking market here ...

3.2 Indigo, the undisputed market leader

Among the private players specialized in parking, the main companies are Indigo, QPark, Effia, Interparking and APCOA. Among them is Indigo, born in **** from the merger of Sogeparc and Parcs GTM and initially named Vinci Park. While APCOA dominates the European market, Indigo is the French market leader with a market ...

3.3 : Focus on medium-sized operators

This section aims to analyze the smaller players in the French market. Thus, the following table lists several medium-sized operators, classified by revenue (***).

Among these parking lots, several, although paying, are not entirely private. In fact, some of them are partly or mostly owned by the cities where the players operate. ...


4.1 The different types of parking lots

As previously mentioned, there are several types of parking lots, depending on whether they are indoor or outdoor. To give more details, we can distinguish the following types of parking lots [***]:

Surface parking lots

Surface parking lots are parking lots on the same level, usually delimited by an enclosure, barriers, etc. ...

4.2 Costs and pricing of the activity

According to Turner & Townsend, the cost of building a parking lot in Paris reached €*,***/m* for underground parking lots and €***/m* for surface parking lots in ****. [***]

Construction costs of parking garages in Paris France, ****-****, in €/m* Source: ****

In addition, Evo-park, a company specializing in the construction of parking lots, provides ...

4.3 The gradual disappearance of on-street parking in favor of indoor parking facilities

As a result of the interaction of many factors, including urban planning concerns and measures to limit cars in the city center, there is a scarcity of on-street parking spaces in France. In ****, **% of cities declared that they had removed a significant number of on-street parking spaces over the past five ...

4.4 Parking in cities: towards connected and multi-modal spaces

Intermodality axes

Currently, in France, **% of home-work trips are monomodal. There is therefore a real opportunity for better fragmentation of the journey, which is a key issue in the energy transition. Here are some of the areas under study in the parking sector:

Car-sharing Parking for two-wheelers (***) Charging stations for electric ...


5.1 Parking space regulations


The parking spaces are subject to a regulation of dimensions concerning the ground marking, according to the type of storage:

Disabled and PRM adapted spaces

Since ****, it is mandatory to have at least *% of the number of adapted parking spaces for disabled people. The spaces must be close to the ...

5.2 Parking lot construction standards

Construction standards for a parking lot vary depending on many factors:

Type: public or private Mode of construction and terrain: underground, surface, overhead.. Capacity: number of spaces Traffic pattern within the parking lot: one-way or two-way

According to these criteria, the main elements concerned by the regulation are the following:

Dimensions ...


6.1 Segmentation

  • Effia
  • Q-Park
  • Indigo Group
  • Interparking France
  • APCOA Parking
  • Edeis

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Reviews (3)

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The stationary toilet market - France

Publicado en 12/01/2022 by Client anonyme - Ce client a souhaité rester anonyme

A highly quantified study. Despite the investments made by local authorities, the mistrust of public toilets is confirmed. The smart toilet market has not yet taken off.

Businesscoot Response:

Hello Geoffroy, Thank you for your feedback and we are delighted that this study has given you a good overview of the market.

The public lighting market - France

Publicado en 27/10/2021 by Stéphane Naville - AXIONE SAS

Good level of synthesis allowing to go to the essential of a market (supply, demand, actors) quickly!

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The veneers and wood panels market - France

Publicado en 08/09/2020 by Client Anonyme - Ce client a souhaité rester anonyme

A synthetic and easy to read study, usable for us.

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