1.1 Definition and scope of study
Slaughterhouses are establishments in which animals are slaughtered and prepared for consumption. This study covers cattle slaughterhouses (veal, young cattle, bulls, steers, cows, heifers) and sheep slaughterhouses (lambs, ewe lambs, rams, ewes, sheep)
The international meat market will continue to grow, with a total increase in sales of 39% between 2020 and 2025. Indeed, world production of beef, dominated by the USA and Brazil, and of sheepmeat, dominated by China, has risen sharply over the past decade.
The French market, made up of 265 slaughterhouses, is growing slightly, although the number of cattle and sheep slaughterings is declining. The sector has become increasingly concentrated over the past two decades, with the Bigard group dominating the market. Public abattoirs, for their part, are experiencing a more complicated situation, and their future is in jeopardy.
The national market is being impacted by growing consumer concern for animal welfare .
1.2 The growing global market
The market for the production, processing and packaging of meat products (***) of *%, representing a total increase of **% between **** and ****. This increase will be driven in particular by demographic growth, industry automation and innovation, as well as an upmarket offering. [***]
Global meat industry market size World, **** - ****, in billions of USD Source: ...
1.3 Domestic market
Insee provides the market size in ****, as well as the annual sales index for the "processing and preservation of butcher's meat" (***).
Category **.**Z (***) comprises :
the operation of slaughterhouses engaged in the slaughter of animals for slaughter, and the preparation and packaging of meat: beef, pork, lamb, rabbit, mutton, buffalo, bison, etc. production ...
1.4 A positive trade balance for live animals but negative for meat
With regard to imports and exports, it's worth distinguishing between trade in live animals and trade in already-processed meat. Indeed, the latter constitutes a form of competition for slaughterhouses, while the former supplies slaughterhouses with "raw material" for processing.
Live animals :
The trade balance for large cattle is largely positive. ...
2.1 Decrease in meat consumption
Total meat consumption in France over the past decade has fallen very slightly, with average annual per capita meat consumption (***) down by just *.*% between **** and ****. However, this slight decline has been a structural trend for * decades, with a *.*% drop in **** compared to ****, and a *.*% drop between **** and ****.
While meat consumption in ...
2.2 Demand for beef and sheep meat
The following graph shows the penetration rate of beef and sheep meat in France. The penetration rate is an indicator that reflects the proportion of consumers in relation to the number of potential customers (***) who purchased the product during the year.
In detail, the penetration rate for beef, excluding ...
2.3 More and more demand for organic meat
According to an IFOP survey for Interbev, among French meat eaters (***), before remaining stable by fluctuating +/- * points since then.
Frequency of organic meat consumption France, ****, in Source: ****
In detail, the proportion of organic meat consumers is highest among the over-**s (***).
The main reasons for consuming organic meat are respect ...
2.4 Demand trends: animal welfare takes center stage
Over the past decade, there has been a growing concern about animal welfare in the meat industry, provoked and/or accentuated by videos from the L*** association that have raised public awareness.
According to a **** IFOP poll for the ** Millions d'Amis foundation, a very large majority of French people (***) agree that ...
3.1 Meat industry value chain
Slaughterhouses are at the heart of the supply chain, upstream from processing and distribution, and downstream from livestock farming and intermediaries/live animal traders. The latter play a major role between livestock farmers and slaughterhouses. Intermediaries can be of several kinds. There are, for example, livestock markets, where buyers and sellers ...
3.2 Slaughter market structure
Slaughterhouse activity is listed under NAF code **.**Z: processing and preservation of butcher's meat (***) but excludes poultry and game.
Between **** and ****, the number of establishments fell by **% (***).
Number of meat processing and preservation establishments France, **** - ****, in number of establishments Source: ****
Workforce registered under activity **.**Z France, **** - ****, in headcount Source: ...
3.3 Production: slaughter volumes down
The main indicator of production at French slaughterhouses is slaughter volume. There is a downward trend in the volume of cattle and sheep slaughtered in France. In fact, in ****, the number of controlled cattle slaughters fell by *% compared to ****, **% compared to **** and **% compared to ****. For sheep, although the drop is less ...
3.4 Production: limited yields
Throughout the value chain (***), from animal transport to processing, there are numerous losses. As a result, yields from animal to plate are limited and vary according to the animal:
For a whole suckler cow (***) with an "empty live" weight, i.e. when the animal is alive, of *** kilograms, the losses ...
3.5 Distribution channels dominated by supermarkets
The main distribution channels for beef and sheep meat to consumers, and therefore the main customers for abattoirs, are supermarkets and hypermarkets. Specialized stores (***) are also major players in the distribution chain.
For beef, **.*% of distribution is captured by hypermarkets and supermarkets. Specialized stores, meanwhile, account for **.*% of the volume ...
4.1 Sharp rises in meat prices
The following two graphs show the evolution of the consumer price indexes for beef and sheep meat in relation to the general price index. The price index is used to estimate the average variation in prices of products consumed by households. It is based on the observation of a fixed basket ...
4.2 Supply trends: animal welfare and short distribution channels
Animal welfare, a key issue for slaughterhouses
Over the past few years, the issue of animal welfare in slaughterhouses has become increasingly important, particularly in the wake of videos released by L*** that raised public awareness.[***]
The France Relance plan, launched in December ****, includes an envelope of *** million euros dedicated to ...
5.1 The main regulatory standards governing the meat industry
The " Hygiene Package ": this is a set of European hygiene standards designed to ensure a minimum level of food safety on a European scale, and binding on all players in the food chain. They mainly comprise the following regulations: Regulation (***) n°***/****, Regulation (***) n°***/****, Regulation (***) n°***/****, Regulation (***) n°***/****, Regulation (***) n°***/****, Regulation ...
5.2 slaughterhouse regulations
Killing rules are harmonized at European level by EC Regulation n°****/**** of September **, ****. The Commission and the European Parliament thus set minimum requirements for slaughter in Europe. However, each member state can then set more stringent rules. For example, France has chosen to exclude kids and suckling lambs from the poultry ...
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