1.1 Definition and scope of the study
Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained after the fermentation of the grape: the best known and most consumed types of wine in Portugal are red wine, white wine, rosé and Porto. Another segmentation of wine can be made according to its origin, its denomination, but also according to its grape variety. This study focuses in particular on organic wines, which are distinguished by the viticulture and vinification processes used in their production. No artificial treatments or insecticides are allowed and a reduction in quantities at the time of vinification is preferable. Acidification and the addition of tannins and sulphur are permitted, but in smaller proportions. For example, the standards in force in Europe stipulate the use of 160 mg/litre of sulphur for a conventional wine, compared to 100 mg/litre for an organic wine, 70 mg/litre for a biodynamic wine (Demeter) and 30mg/litre for a natural wine (Natural Wine Association).
The world consumption of wine reaches 32 billion bottles per year, dominated by the consumption of the United States and France, with a consumption of 4.7 billion and 3.7 billion bottles per year respectively. World wine consumption has increased in recent years to reach nearly 300 million hectolitres in 2019. For the wine giants, the challenge remains to establish themselves in emerging markets. China, for example, is expected to account for more than two-thirds of global growth in this market by 2020.
The global market continues to be dominated by multinationals. Recently, however, thousands of independent wineries have managed to establish themselves in niche markets and are often very prestigious. In the meantime, the wine sector has been facing a strong concentration in recent years with the completion of numerous mergers and acquisitions.
The Portuguese market is expected to reach a CAGR of 2% and to reach a volume of 538 million litres in 2023. New domestic producers are emerging every year, contributing to the high fragmentation of sales and increasing pressure on prices in the country. According to the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, the country was the absolute leader in per capita consumption, with a volume of 62.1 litres per person per year. Portugal already has more than 2,720 hectares of vineyards that specialise in organic production, of which approximately 40% are located in the Trás-os-Montes region in the extreme north-east of the country.
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