1.1 Definition and scope of the study
As the population ages, the demand for health care will increase. The Office of National Statistics projects a 36% growth in the number of people at age 85 and older between 2015 and 2025, from 1.5 million to 2 million. This is expected to result in a substantial increase in demand for home health care services. The care home sector, was worth approximately £16.6 billion per year in the UK in 2019.
As a reminder, home care is supportive care provided in the home by licensed healthcare professionals.
Thus, activities by professional caregivers helping with activities of daily living will be excluded from our study. Indeed, services such as help with shopping, ironing or cleaning are not medical services but only services provided to medically unfit people.
A large part of the market regards services to the elderly, but home health care is also provided to people with long-term illnesses and disabilities, as well as to those who have recently been discharged from hospital.
Home care can be provided and funded by a variety of people or organizations. Local authorities (LAs) play a major role in the home health care market by purchasing home care services for some of its residents. This includes direct purchase from service providers, volunteer services, and private service providers. Under the Care Act 2014, local authorities have a statutory duty to "shape" this market, to ensure that there are enough services of sufficiently high quality to meet need.
Private clients who, for example, are not eligible for LA home care can also purchase home care directly from private service providers.
For the NHS, it is essential to allow people to "age in place" and to provide care as close to home as possible. However, due to budget cuts, local authorities are struggling to fund these services for an aging population, and the shortage of care is only compounding the NHS's difficulties.
Moreover, between 2017 and 2018, three of the nation's largest home care providers (Saga, Care UK, and Housing 21) exited the publicly funded home care market, while two others (Mears and Mitie) reported losses in their home care divisions.
Thus, the health care market appears uncertain and fragile; the greatest challenges remain for public services to be able to provide quality home care while seeking greater efficiency. Industry innovations such as telemedicine, telehealth, and remote telecare are responses to this challenge.
1.2 The growing world market
The home care market is a growing market globally. The market is estimated to be worth US$*** billion globally in **** and is expected to grow at an average rate of *.*% per year through ****.
The aging population is one of the main drivers of this growth, as well as the access of ...
1.3 The home care market in the UK
The following graph provides an overview of the need for care in the UK in ****. More than ** million people needed care at home during the year ****. This graph shows that the majority of care is provided at home by paid or unpaid carers compared to only *.* million carers in care homes ...
1.4 Effect of the Covid-19 crisis
The health crisis has had a significant effect on the home care market. Indeed, home care recipients have been very heavily impacted with a much higher number of deaths than normal as we can see in the following graph comparing the months of April through June **** with the years prior to ...
2.1 The growing demand of the elderly
The following graph shows the change in the age distribution of the number of adults receiving long-term care from local governments through ****. It can be seen that despite a steady decrease in the number of beneficiaries over the age of ** through ****, the number of adult beneficiaries under the age of ** is ...
2.2 The demand for specialized medical care in the home
The total expenses for home care are broken down as follows.
In-home care consists of support for personal care and/or household tasks in the person's home. Assisted living refers to programs that help young adults live independently in their own homes. Direct payments are payments made through a bank account ...
2.3 Distribution of Adult Home Care Demand
The following graph shows the distribution of adults receiving long-term medical support. It is immediately noticeable that physical support for people over ** years old is the most frequent form of care with *** thousand people being cared for in the year ****-**. However, for adults under ** years of age, patients with learning ...
3.1 UK Home Care Providers
The UK home care supply is growing to meet the high demand for care.
The change in the number of jobs shows a steady growth in the workforce with a recent increase greater than previous years of *% from ****-** to ****-**.
Number of jobs in home care services United Kingdom, ****-** ...
3.2 A sector divided between public and private investments
The following graph breaks down the UK home care market. First, it can be seen that the majority of the market is occupied by the public sector with **% for short visits and **% for more complex care. The private sector accounts for a combined share of only **%
UK Home Care Market United ...
3.3 Difficulties of the sector
The home care market is quite competitive for several structural reasons. First, it is a market with few barriers to entry and exit and relatively low fixed costs. The only non-labor costs are in transportation, which is higher in rural areas. The main difference with other health care industries is the ...
4.1 Home care versus nursing home care
Home care services in the United Kingdom include the following.
Personal care assists the recipient with daily personal tasks made more difficult by illness or aging (***). Companionship helps lonely seniors who are still able to live independently and do not wish to move into a nursing home or another group living ...
4.2 Cost of home care
The UK Homecare Association provides the following estimate of the minimum price for remote care to provide a sustainable quality service while aligning with the national minimum wage. This hourly cost was therefore estimated at £**.** in April **** with the majority of the cost relating to the duration of care and business ...
4.3 The new home care offerings
Adult home care is benefitting from innovation in a number of areas, including the following examples
Technology and digital Home automation systems that include a light path that turns on when a person gets out of bed, gas and smoke detectors, fall alarms, and a remote assistance call center. Video consultations ...
5.1 The Care Act 2014
The Care Act **** is a law relating to care and support for adults and carers. This law is of fundamental importance and affects anyone who gives or receives care in the UK.
The Care Act **** gives the following guidance to caregivers to protect adults experiencing abuse and improve their quality of ...
5.2 Regulation of home health professionals
The regulation of home health care is done at the state level in the United Kingdom with the following bodies
Care Quality Commission (***) in England Care Inspectorate (***) in Wales Care Inspectorate (***) in Scotland Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (***) in Northern Ireland
In England, care agencies must follow the following basic ...
- City & County Healthcare Group Ltd
- Pulse Healthcare Ltd
- Agincare UK Ltd
- The Seva Care Group Ltd
- Cera Care Ltd
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