1.1 Definition and scope of study
Wind turbines appeared several centuries ago as a form of tools for draining or irrigating wet or dry areas . It was not until the 1950s that the first wind turbines producing electricity appeared. Using blades, a rotor, a nacelle and a mast, the wind is converted into electricity. A wind turbine allows you to supply an average of 1,150 households as defined in Switzerland Wind Energy .
A wind turbine corresponds to the visible structure of the wind turbine except for the mast. The aim for manufacturers is to design blades that convert as much wind energy as possible into electricity. The role of manufacturers does not stop at the design stage, as they realize , install and dismantle the wind turbines they design.
While renewable energies are becoming a real political and economic challenge, wind energy is a potential alternative to fossil fuels. The number of installations is increasing on the territory, especially since some of them targets have been set for 2023 and 2028 via the multiannual energy programmes
However, there are still many challenges for the sector. The profitability of turbiners remains very low and the emergence of new trends, such as smart grids could encourage the emergence of new players in a highly concentrated sector.
1.2 Moderate growth for wind energy worldwide
The overall market for wind turbines has been estimated at **.* billion in **** and should have a average annual growth of *.*% about
The China , the United States and the Germany concentrate the main wind power generation capacities in the world. It is in these three countries where **.*% of new wind farms ...
1.3 Wind power is on the rise in France
The manufacture of wind turbines represented a market of *.* billion euros in **** according to a study by ADEME (***). The wind turbine installed at sea represents only *% of the total.
The market for manufacture of wind turbine components is estimated at *** million euros . It is the manufacturers of electrical and electronic components ...
2.1 Onshore wind power remains dominant in France
Several types of wind turbines are available on the market. Requiring a relatively large investment (***), the main customers are local authorities. Purchases are made in particular via public funding . [***]
France is one of the largest investors in wind energy in Europe. In ****, €*.* billion was spent on wind turbine installations - compared ...
2.2 Operators are relatively concentrated
According to the ADEME many wind energy operators are French. Energy companies (***) generally work with financiers to design and develop their installation projects. In ****, the main operators were Engie , EDF and Boralex .
The financial situation of these companies is therefore decisive for future investments in the wind energy sector in ...
2.3 The new expectations of operators: an opportunity for the sector
For many years, the wind industry has been using "discounted energy cost" in order to measure the efficiency of the means of electricity production, defined as the cost of energy production divided by the energy produced. [***]
The GWEC identifies new elements that go beyond this cost-production perspective, including the importance of ...
3.1 The phenomenon of concentration continues
According to the The Wind Power some players now have several thousand wind turbines for energy exploitation in Europe. Among these, Engie, EDP Renovaveis and EDF Renewables stand out. In ****, the * main turbiners accounted for **% of the market share .
This concentration is the result of numerous mergers and acquisitions that ...
3.2 Financing is orchestrated by major financial players
The risks associated with wind farms are relatively low. They provide long-term visibility, which is of particular interest to institutional investors. [***] Some are part of the energy sector, others are purely financial. In its report, ADEME identifies * purely financial actors interested in investing in wind energy:
From the infrastructure or private ...
3.3 The manufacturing and assembly phase captures most of the value chain
The manufacture of wind turbines follows multiple stages s, ranging from the design for dismantling . Components represent a large part of the cost of wind turbines (***). Development, assembly and installation investments are estimated at between * *** and * *** euros per kW . Operation costs between ** and ** euros per kW per year which makes it ...
4.1 Wind turbines are mainly horizontally rotating
It is possible to make a first distinction between wind turbines depending on the transmission technology used. L’ ADEME identifies the two main ones present on the market:
With multiplier which transforms the slow rotation of the blades into a faster rotation that generates electricity. In ****, **% of the installations were manufactured ...
4.2 The turbine represents half of the manufacturing costs of a wind turbine
According to a study by the FEE (***), two-thirds of the cost of a wind turbine is associated with the wind generator . The price of the latter is correlated to the size of the wind turbine. For a size less than *** metres at the end of a blade, the wind turbine costs ...
4.3 The contribution of digitalization and increasingly efficient turbines
Eurobserv'ER in its **** wind barometer notes that digitisation should make it possible to improve the efficiency of wind turbines by allowing:
From facilitate the production of turbines and components thereby reducing production costs D’ optimize the integration of the wind farm into the electricity grid by determining when wind energy is ...
5.1 The wind energy sector is highly regulated
The FEE groups on its website the all the measures that wind turbine manufacturers and operators must take into account:
The wind turbine installation is subject to "the environmental authorization" from * er march ****, for a period of approximately ** months. There are three distinct stages: The phase examination during which the administration ...
5.2 Multi-annual energy programmes set future production targets
Multi-year energy programs were created by the Energy Transition Law for Green Growth . Its objectives are broad since they concern both the security of energy supply and the development and exploitation of renewable energies. [***]
One of the components sets as its objective the **% increase in the share of electrical renewable energies ...
- Siemens Gamesa
- GE Renewable Energy
- New World Wind
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