A cooking terminal is an establishment that completes cooking on site, to present it to the consumer as fresh. (1)
After decades of decline, daily bread consumption has stagnated in recent years. The National Association of French flour milling estimated the decline in bread consumption in 2016 at 7.5%. French people now consume three times less bread than in 1950 (2). The rise in sales prices (+24% in 10 years (3)) linked to the development of innovative bakery products enabled the sector's turnover to increase. The bakery and pastry market reached 11 billion euros in 2016 and continues to evolve. The bakery and pastry sector has 12 million consumers, produces 6 billion baguettes each year and represents 60% of the bread market in France. The eating habits of the French are changing, with a growing trend towards snacking, hence the increase in sandwich sales and the need for bakeries to move in this direction.
With more than 33,000 brands, the bakery and pastry sector is the number one in the food industry. It has evolved in recent years and has become extremely competitive. Independent bakers still dominate the sector but face a double competition: bakers who have joined a Paul brand (Holder Group), La Brioche Dorée (Le Duff Group) and baking terminals that operate as franchises (La Mie Caline, Point Chaud). Some bakeries also create local collectives to offer 100% local breads, using the local chain from A to Z as Ptinor in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, or Savouet in Savoie among others. Bakeries and pastry shops are also largely competed by fast food chains, but they keep a price advantage with an average ticket at €5.90 against €8.70 in fast food chains.
The response of the independent sellers consists in concluding partnerships with millers (Banette, Baguépi). Better purchasing conditions and increased awareness explain the success of this formula. The main players in the bakery and pastry industry are taking advantage of French expertise to establish themselves abroad. There are other players such as Lenôtre or Les Fromentiers de France who have specialised in specific fields.
In order to remain on the market, retailers must diversify and boost their offer to meet consumers' new needs and the snacking trend: new flavours, new types of bread, more sandwiches and innovative recipes, salads, etc. Some bakeries are also moving towards an organic, gluten-free and premium offer. Finally, in the digital age, more and more brands are creating websites, Facebook pages, thus making themselves visible on Google Maps to gain visibility and recognition.
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